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Glossary

3G
3rd Generation is an International Telecommunication Union (ITU) specification for the third generation of mobile communications technology. 3G supports speeds of around 2 Megabits per second, supporting web browsing, video downloads and other Smartphone applications


3GPP
3rd Generation Partnership Project is a collaboration between groups of telecommunications associations that sets 3G mobile phone specifications.


4G
4th Generation is characterized by speeds of at least 100 Megabits per second peak download for high mobility (such as in a car) and 1 Gigabit per second peak download for stationary.


4G LTE
4th Generation Long Term Evolution. LTE was the name given to technologies that provided next generation connectivity to 4G, but did not quite attain the 4G bandwidth standards.


A-links
Access Links, also known as SS7 access links, connects an end office or signal point to a mated pair of signal transfer points


A-Party
The calling subscriber. This is the subscriber who is originating the call.


A2P
Advertiser/Application to Person (A2P) SMS advertisers have a commercial agreement with one or more service providers. Advertisers provide the messages and mobile numbers to a mobile operator, who then sends the messages in broadcast mode to the recipients


ACA
Accounting Answer, Diameter message type responding to an Accounting Request message.


Access Point
Is a point through which an individual network device can get access to a local area network. This term is commonly used to denote the hub through which wireless devices get access to the wireless network and the Internet.


ACD
Automatic Call Distribution


ACR
Accounting Request – A Diameter message type for creating an accounting transaction. An ACR is sent by an IMS network element that describes a stage in the processing of a SIP service


AGW
Application Gateway – A gateway between SMS applications and service centers provided by the SMS Router and other components


AMR
Adaptive Multirate – A 3GPP standardized voice codec used by the GSM standard and in 3rd generation (3G) mobile radio networks for voice compression.


AMS
Active Message Store – Provides store-and-forward functionality for SMS messages.


AO
SMS traffic that is originated by an application.


AOR
Application-Originated Routing AOR Routing rule that operates on application-originated (AO) messages.


APN
Access Point Name – The name identifying a general packet radio service (GPRS) bearer service in a GSM mobile network. See also GSM.


ARPU
Average Revenue Per User


AVP
Attribute Value Pair – The Diameter protocol consists of a header followed by one or more attribute-value pairs (AVPs). An AVP includes a header and is used to encapsulate protocol-specific data (e.g., routing information) as well as authentication, authorization or accounting information.


B-Party
The called subscriber. This is the subscriber to whom the call is being placed.


Backhaul
The transport of signaling from the point of interface for the associated data stream back to the point of call processing (when processing is not local).


Bandwidth
The data rate supported by a network connection or interface; most commonly expressed in terms of bytes per second (bps).


BIC-Roam
Barring of Incoming Calls when Roaming outside of local mobile phone billing plan area.


BoD
Bandwidth on Demand – BoD is an application that provides dynamic allocation of bandwidth; for example, a broadband speed promotion.


BOIC
Barring of Outgoing International Calls


BPS
Bytes Per Second


BRI
Basic Rate Interface – Basic Rate ISDN


Broadcast
Is the simultaneous transmission of information to all nodes and terminals of a network. This is used in both fixed networks and wireless networks. This is different from Multicast which is only directed to users who requested it.


BSU
Broadband Signal Unit


CAMEL
Customized Applications for Mobile networks Enhanced Logic – Provides the ability to extend services within a GSM network not covered by standardized GSM services.


CDMA
Code Division Multiple Access – A channel access method used by radio communication technologies. CDMA employs spread-spectrum technology and a special coding scheme (where each transmitter is assigned a code) to allow multiple users to be multiplexed over the same physical channel. CDMA is being replaced by GSM in many parts of the world.


CDR
Call Detail Record – This refers to the recording of all connections in a database to permit activities such as billing connection charges or network analysis. CDR files are used in public switched networks, IP networks, for IP telephony, and mobile communications networks.


Churn
Churn is a term used to describe the number of subscribers who leave a supplier during a given time period. Churn is typically measured monthly.


Changeback
A network management event that takes the traffic that was rerouted because of a changeover when a signaling link has failed and places that traffic back on that signaling link when that signaling link comes back into service.


Changeover
A network management event that routes traffic from a failed signaling link to another signaling link that can carry the traffic.


CIMD2
Computer Interface to Message Distribution – This protocol was originally developed by Nokia for their SMSC. This protocol has been evolved since its first release, with many vendors providing an interface to get connected to them via CIMD2 protocol. CIMD2 is the version 2 of the Computer Interface to Message Distribution protocol.


CLEC
Competitive Local Exchange Carrier


CLI
Calling Line Identification – transmits a caller’s number to a called party’s telephony system.


CNAM
Calling Name Delivery – An IN (Intelligent Network) service that displays the caller’s name on the calling party’s phone. This is similar to caller ID except that the calling party’s name is displayed along with the calling number or instead of the calling number.


COTS
Commercial Off-the-Shelf – Usually refers to standard hardware solutions.


CSMA/CD
Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detect (CMSA/CD) – Is a network access method. In CSMA/CD a station listens for traffic before transmitting. If two stations transmit simultaneously, a collision occurs. Collision detection allows the two stations to detect this event. If a collision is detected, both stations wait a random period of time before attempting to transmit again.


DA
Destination Address


Data Rate
The data rate is a term to denote the transmission speed, or the number of bits per second transferred. The useful data rate for the user is usually less than the actual data rate transported on the network. Due in part to signaling, error correction, etc.


Datagram Message Mode
The Short Message Peer-to-Peer protocol offers a message mode option that defines an SMSC message delivery mechanism. The delivery mechanisms are Store and Forward, Datagram Message Mode, Datagram, and Transaction mode. The MT First Delivery Attempt feature supports the Store and Forward and the Transaction modes. The Mobile Terminated application also supports the Datagram Message Mode, which is designed for high throughput applications where the data content is transient. In this mode, the message originator does not receive any form of delivery acknowledgement


DHCP
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol – Is a protocol used by computers to obtain unique IP address, default router, subnet mask, and IP addresses for DNS servers from a DHCP server. DHCP allows devices to be added to the network with little or no manual configuration.


Diameter
Protocol that provides an Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting
(AAA) framework for applications such as network access or IP mobility.
Diameter works in both local and roaming AAA situations.
Diameter can also be used as a signaling protocol for mobility management which is typically associated with an IMS or wireless type of environment. Diameter is the successor to the RADIUS protocol


DiffServ
DiffServ is a method for transporting realtime applications across the Internet or Intranets. DiffServ provides a small number of QoS classes each of which has a set of rules (also referred to as per-hop behavior (PHB). DiffServ defines various service levels: Expedited Forwarding (EF), Default Forwarding (DF), and Assured Forwarding (AF).


DSO
Fault sectionalization tests, a series of far-end loopback tests to identify faulty segments of an SS7 transmission path up to and including the remote network element.


EDGE
Enhanced Data rates for Global Evolution – Is a technology that can be used in existing GSM networks to increase the data capacity. EDGE is an official member of the IMT-2000 family. EDGE increases the capacity of the radio link within the existing 200 kHz GSM radio channels.


EGTT
Enhanced Global Title Translation – Is a feature that is designed for the signaling connection control part (SCCP) of the SS7 protocol.


EIR
Equipment Identity Register EIR – A network entity used in GSM networks, as defined in the 3GPP Specifications for mobile networks. The entity stores lists of International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI) numbers, which correspond to physical handsets (not subscribers). Use of the EIR can prevent the use of stolen handsets because the network operator can enter the IMEI of these handsets into a ‘blacklist’ and prevent them from being registered on the network, thus making them useless


EMG
Email Gateway – SMS-to-E-mail Gateway provides SMS-to-e-mail conversion for mobile subscribers


ENUM
Telephone Number Mapping – Is a technology for unifying various communications and telephone addresses for private and business numbers, facsimile and mobile phone numbers, SMS services, Instant Messaging and email. ENUM integrates legacy phone numbers with the Domain Name System (DNS). Users can access and maintain a directory that supports all forms of wired communication, mobile communications networks, and the Internet. ENUM allows for an end user to be reached on multiple devices via one phone number and allows the end user to determine which device to contact first or multiple devices simultaneously


FAF
Firewall Advanced Filter – Works in combination with the Firewall to filter messages, modify message content, and alert network operators of increases in SMS-related traffic


FCDR
SMSC-compatible ASN.1 CDR format


FDA
First Delivery Attempt – A high percentage of SMS traffic gets through on first delivery attempt (FDA). That means that all of the initial processing that the SMSC does to store, query and forward messages is to a certain extent a waste of processing power. FDA bypasses this processing within the SMSC.


Femtocell
A femtocell is a small cellular base stations designed for use in residential or corporate environments. A subscriber can use their own mobile handset to connect to the mobile network. The femtocell routes the traffic to the mobile core network through a fixed broadband connection of the subscriber for connectivity.


Firewall
A firewall can be a combination of hardware and software, or just software that enforces a boundary between two or more networks. A firewall is. Used to limit the exposure of a computer or computer network to an attack from an outside network.


FTEU
Free to End User – Is text messaging SMS in which the sender is charged the fee not the end user. In the United States, cell phone users pay for SMS according to the terms of their mobile plan, but FTEU messaging allows your business to send text messages to your customers at no charge to them.


GGSN
The Gateway GPRS Support Node – Is a component of the GPRS network. The GGSN is responsible for the interworking between the GPRS network and external packet switched networks such as IP networks and the Internet.


G-port
GSM Mobile Number Portability – Is a feature that provides mobile subscribers the ability to change the GSM subscription network within a portability cluster, while retaining their original MSISDN(s)


GPRS
The General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is a technology for the support of packet switched traffic in a GSM network. GPRS enables high-speed wireless Internet and other data communications in GSM. The data speed of GPRS is much greater than bandwidth available within conventional GSM systems.


GSM
The Global System for Mobile communications (GSM) is a wireless telecommunications standard for digital cellular services. The original standard was optimized for voice communications and provided only circuit-switched data connections at a bit rate of 9.6 kbps and a short messages service (SMS). Later enhancements made higher bit rates and packet switched data possible.


GSMA
Groupe Speciale Mobile Association – Was formed in 1995. It is an association of mobile operators and related companies devoted to supporting the standardization, deployment and promotion of the GSM mobile telephone system.


GUI
Graphical User Interface – The term given to that set of items and facilities which provide the user with a graphic means for manipulating screen data rather than being limited to character based commands.
Gateway
Frequently a combination of hardware and software to connect disparate networks by means of protocol conversion. A gateway has the task of transferring messages from computer network to another, which requires communication protocols to be translated.


High Availability
Refers to a system or component that operates on a continuous basis by utilizing redundant connectivity, thereby circumventing unplanned outages


Home Location Register
Is a component within the Switching Subsystem of a GSM network. The HLR database is the central database within the GSM architecture. This is where information about the mobile communications subscribers who are assigned to a specific location area is stored. The subscriber data is used to establish connections and control services. Depending on the network size, the number of subscribers and the network organization, a number of HLRs can exist within a GSM network.


Integrated Access Device
A Media Gateway in Next Generation Networks (NGN) for converting IP traffic to TDM.
Initial Address Message
Ensures that the services offered are compatible with the reception devices. For example, IAM prevents a phone being connected to a facsimile.


IMEI
International Mobile Station Equipment Identity – Used by operators of the GSM network to identify a valid mobile device or blacklist a lost or stolen device.


IMAP4
Internet Message Access Protocol – Is a standard interface between a user’s e-mail program and the mail server, as defined by IETF RFC 3501. IMAP4 and POP3 are the two common mailbox access protocols for e-mail clients such as Outlook, Mail, Eudora and Thunderbird.


IMS
IP Multimedia Subsystem –These are central integration platforms for controlling mobile communications services, customer management and accounting for mobile communications services based on IP. The IMS concept is supported by 3GPP and the UMTS Forum and is designed to provide a wide range of application scenarios for individual and group communication


IMSI
International Mobile Subscriber Identity – n internal network ID stored on the SIM card that protects the mobile communications user’s identity


Inter Carrier
Inter Carriers allow network operators and service providers to offer their customers voice, data, and video on 3G and 4G networks spanning global operators.


IP
Internet Protocol – specifies the format of packets, also called datagrams, and the addressing scheme. The network layer for the TCP/IP protocol suite widely used on Ethernet networks, defined in STD 5, RFC 791. IP is a connectionless, best-effort packet switching protocol.


IP Gateway
Gateway module that allows voice and video messages to be transmitted between IP endpoints.


IPsec
Internet Protocol Security – IS a protocol suite for securing Internet Protocol communications by authenticating and encrypting each IP packet of a data stream


IR.74
GSMA definition for terminal interoperable Real-Time Live Video Share service. The intended audience of IR.74 is terminal or software vendors who wish to implement an inter-operable Video Share service.


IR.84
GSMA definition for terminal interoperable Real-Time Live Video Share services for Phase 2. It describes backward compatibility within Phase 1 as described in IR.74 “Video Share Interoperability Specification”.


IR.92
GSMA definition for voice over IMS by listing number of Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network, evolved packet core, IMS core, and UE features which are considered essential to launch interoperable IMS based voice services.


ISDN
Integrated Services Digital Network – Integrates a number of services to form a transmission network. For example, the ISDN network integrates, telephony, facsimile, video telephony and data transfer services, providing users with various digital service over a single interface: voice, text, images, and other data


ISP
Internet Service Provider


ITU
International Telecommunications Union – An organization that operates worldwide to allow governments and the private telecommunications sector to coordinate the deployment and operating of telecommunications networks and services. The ITU is responsible for regulating, coordinating and developing international telecommunications standards.


IVR
Interactive Voice Response – Refers to human t computer interactivity via voice with either touch or speech recognition input.


joyn
The GSMA has defined a series of joyn specifications that define specific implementations of the underlying RCS specifications. The joyn specifications seeks to promote standardization and simplify interconnection between carriers. Releases include:
• joyn Hot Fixes – this includes 1:1 chat, group chat, MSRP file sharing and video sharing (during a circuit switched call).
• joyn Blackbird Drop 1 – based upon the RCS 5.1 specification, this extends the joyn Hot Fixes service to include HTTP file sharing, location sharing, group file sharing, and other capabilities such as group chat store and forward. joyn Blackbird Drop 1 is backward compatible with joyn Hot Fixes.


JSON
JavaScript Object Notation JSON A data-interchange format


Kbps
Kilobits per second


K-band
The microwave band ranges from 1 GHz to 100 GHz. K-band is defined as the range between 18-27 Ghz.


KPI
Key Performance Indicator(s)


Local Area Network
A private data network in which serial transmission is used for direct data communication among data stations located in the same proximate location. LAN uses coax cable, twisted pair, or multimode fiber


LDAP
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol – Is a protocol for providing and receiving directory information in a TCP/IP network.


Least Cost Routing
Is a type of routing whereby priorities are assigned to routes so that messages can be sent at the lowest possible cost. Messages utilizing least-cost routing are sent via the route with highest priority (least-cost) based on the availability of the route at the time the message is being processed. If the least-cost route is unavailable, the route with the next highest priority is used, and so on. If two or more routes are given equal cost, traffic is distributed equally among the equal-cost routes


Local Number Portability
The ability of subscribers to switch local or wireless carriers and still retain the same phone number.


Location Routing Number
A 10-digit number in a database called a Service Control Point (SCP) that identifies a switching port for a local telephone exchange. LRN is a technique for providing Local Number Portability.


Local Signaling Point
A logical element representing an SS7 Signaling Point. The Local Signaling Point assigns a unique primary/true point code within a particular SS7 Domain to an MP server.


LTE
The next-generation network beyond 3G. In addition to enabling fixed to mobile migrations of Internet applications such as Voice over IP (VoIP), video streaming, music downloading, mobile TV, and many others, LTE networks will also provide the capacity to support an explosion in demand for connectivity from a new generation of consumer devices tailored to those new mobile applications.


M2M
Machine 2 Machine – refers to technologies that allow both wireless and wired systems to communicate with other devices of the same type. Messaging such as SMS can be used for applications such as Security/ remote monitoring (burglar / fire alarms), machine checks (e.g. vending machines notifying they need to be filled), and location of devices /vehicles (fleet management)


Media Gateway
A Media Gateway terminates voice calls on inter-switch trunks from the public switched telephone network, compresses and packetizes the voice Media Gateway data, and delivers compressed voice packets to the IP network. For voice calls originating in an IP network, the MG performs these functions in reverse order.


Message Signaling Unit
The SS7 message that is sent between signaling points in the SS7 network with the necessary information to get the message to its destination and allow the signaling points in the network to set up either a voice or data connection between themselves.


MNO
A Mobile Network Operator – Is a telecommunications service provider that delivers wireless voice and data communications for its population of mobile subscribers. An MNO owns the complete telecom infrastructure for hosting and managing mobile communications between mobile users as well as with wired telecom networks


MM1
Is a protocol established by the 3GPP for MMS. MM1 is the interface between a Mobile Station (MS) and an MMSC. MM1 is used for a subscriber to send an MMS to the MMSC and for delivery management. The MM1 interface is based on the WAP protocol.


MM3
Is a protocol established by the 3GPP for MMS. MM3 is the interface between MMSC and external servers such as Email server or SMS Centers SMSC. MM3 is used to exchange messages Email Servers or SMS Centers.


MM4
Is a protocol established by the 3GPP for MMS. MM4 is the interface used to exchange messages between two different MMSCs


MM7
Is a protocol established by the 3GPP for MMS. The MM7 interface is used to send MMS from 3rd party providers such as an advertiser. It is based on SOAP with attachments, using HTTP as the transport protocol.


MMC
Multimedia Messaging Centre (MMC) is an element in a GSM network responsible for the delivery of multimedia messages (MMS). All messages from subscribers are send to the MMC. The MMC stores the messages, extracts the destination from it and attempts to deliver the message.


MMS
Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) is an evolution of the Short Message Service (SMS), extending the text content with capabilities to transmit multimedia messages to other mobile users. Messages can be any combination of images, animations, audio (voice, music), video and text. MMS supports most common compression techniques, such as JPEG and GIF for pictures, MPEG-4 for video and MP3, WAV and midi for audio. MMS is a store and forward messaging service. This means that if the recipient phone is not switched on, the message will be stored in the network and sent to the recipient as soon as the phone is switched on.


MO
Mobile Originated – Refers to a connection established by a mobile communication subscriber. Everything initiated by the mobile station is known as mobile originated


Mobile Country Code
A three-digit number that uniquely identifies a country served by wireless telephone networks. The MCC is part of the International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) number, which uniquely identifies a particular subscriber.


MSISDN
Mobile Station International Subscriber Directory Number – Is the network specific subscriber number of a mobile communications subscriber. This is normally the phone number that is used to reach the subscriber


Multicasting
Multicasting is communications from one sender to a defined group of receivers in a network. Multicasting differs from broadcasting in that the network simply spreads the information to all the nodes within the network with broadcasting, while only defined nodes receive data in a multicast.


MVNO
A Mobile Virtual Network Operator – Is a wireless communications service provider that does not own a complete wireless network infrastructure. The MVNO is allowed through regulations and agreements with MNOs to provide mobile services on top of a MNO infrastructure. The MNO has access to the licensed radio spectrum. Some MVNOs are seen as thin MVNOs –with almost no core infrastructure assets. While others, so called thick MVNOs – own a complete Mobile Core network – and just rent capacity on the radio network (airtime) from their host MNO.


NFV
Network Functions Virtualization – Is a network architecture that proposes using the technologies of IT virtualization to virtualize classes of network node functions into building blocks that may be connected, or chained, to create communication services for flexibility and efficiency.


Next Generation Network
A network design centered on multimedia and realtime communications primarily over IP networks. Networks of this type need to provide intelligent services. NGNs need to support the convergence of a variety of transmission technologies such as time division ISDN, packet switched IP, and multiplexed mobile radio communications


Network Services Part
The lower layers of the SS7 protocol, comprised of the three levels of the Message Transfer Part (MTP) plus the signaling Connection Control Part (SCCP), are known collectively as the Network Services Part (NSP).


OAM&P
Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning. These functions are generally managed by individual applications and not managed by a platform management application.


OPC
Originating Point Code – Within an SS7 network, the point codes are numeric addresses which uniquely identify each signaling point. The OPC identifies the sending signaling point.


OTT
Over The Top – An over-the-top (OTT) application is any app or service that provides a product over the Internet and bypasses traditional distribution. Services that come over the top are most typically related to media and communication and are generally, if not always, lower in cost than the traditional method of delivery and in some cases free.


P2A
Person to Application – A person (content provider) usually has a revenue share agreement with the service provider. The operator gives the content provider a 4-5 digit short SMS code. The content provider then uses the short codes to provide different kinds of services such as ring tones, picture downloads, tele-voting, games, etc. Operators charge premium rate for these SMS to the short codes.


Packet
An independent unit of data (usually up to 1518 octets). Every packet includes delivery information in an area of the packet called the header.


PSTN
Public Switched Telephone Network – A public communication system for voice communication between remote subscribers using TDM communications.


QOS
Quality of Service – The Quality of Service (QoS) refers to the capability of a network to offer a service with a certain quality. Frequently used parameters include availability of a link number of bit errors, Latency (delay in the network), and Jitter.


Radius
Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service – Provides authentication, authorization and accounting for network access. Originally, RADIUS was developed for dial-up remote access. RADIUS is now being replaced by Diameter within many service providers.


RCS
Rich Communication Services – Is a GSM Association (GSMA) program for the creation of inter-operator communication services based on IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS). It is marketed by the GSMA under the brand name joyn. RCS combines services defined by 3GPP and the Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) with an Enhanced Phonebook, and releases that define:
• Enrichment of voice and chat with content sharing (Rel. 1)
• Broadband access for file sharing (Rel. 2)
• Focus on the broadband device as a primary device (Rel. 3)
• Support for LTE (Rel. 4)
• Global interoperability (rel.5)


Roaming
Roaming is the ability for a customer of a mobile communications provider to automatically make and receive telephone calls, send and receive data, or access other services while travelling outside the geographical coverage area of the home network, by means of using a network of another operator.


SIGTRAN
The name given to an IETF working group that produced specifications for a family of protocols that provide reliable datagram service and user layer SIGTRAN adaptations for SS7 and ISDN communications protocols. The most significant protocol defined by the SIGTRAN group was the Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP), which is used to carry PSTN signaling over IP.


SIP
Session Initiation Protocol – Is an application-layer control protocol. SIP supports five facets of establishing and terminating multimedia communications; User location, User availability, User capabilities, Session setup, and Session management.


SMS
Short Message Service – The transmission of short text-messages to and from a mobile phone, fax machine and/or IP address. Messages must be no longer than 160 alphanumeric characters and contain no images or graphics. Once a message is sent, it is received by a Short Message Service Center (SMSC), which must then get it to the appropriate mobile device.


SMSC
Short Message Service Center – Platform used by mobile operators for managing SMS between people and devices.


SMIL
Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language – Is a standard for interactive audio visual presentations. In mobile phones, SMIL is used for MMS messages that integrate streaming audio and video with images, text, and other media.


SMPP
Short Message Peer to Peer – Is an industry standard enabling various types of SMS services. It is also used to link SMSC’s, enabling inter-carrier messaging.


SS7
Signaling System Number 7 – Is a telecommunications protocol that provides out-of-band signaling and a data interface between phone company switches for the express purpose of reducing congestion in the PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network).


SVLTE
A standard that allows a phone to use voice and data at the same time, specifically when the voice network is CDMA and the data network is LTE (4G). SVLTE is being replaced by VoLTE (voice over LTE).


T1
Transmission Level 1 – Is an interface that terminates or distributes T1 facility signals for the purpose of processing the SS7 signaling links carried by a carrier. A leased-line connection capable of carrying data at 1,544,000 bits-per-second defines a T1.


T9
The acronym T9 stands for Text on 9 keys. T9 predictive texting makes SMS messaging faster. Instead of tapping the “4” key three times to input the letter “i” in a text message, with T9 you can just tap “4663” to spell the word “good”. T9 is a patented technology that was originally developed by Tegic Communications, which is now part of Nuance Communications.


Throttling
A mechanism to limit the number of messages being routed to a particular destination.


Transport Layer Security
Is a cryptographic protocol that provides security for communications over networks such as the Internet. TLS encrypts the segments of network connection at the transport layer end-to-end.


Transactions per Second
A method of measuring how quickly a network can transmit and receive data. Capacities listed with “TPS” units involve the maximum of the receive rate and the transmit rate.


UCP
Universal Computer Protocol – This protocol is targeted at transferring Short Messages between a Short Message Service Centre (SMSC) and an application using transport such as TCP or X.25. Specific extensions were introduced to handle short message specifics, which became known as the External Machine Interface (EMI) specifications.


UCS-2
2-byte Universal Character Set – UCS-2 coded SMS contains a maximum of 70 characters. It is in use in countries that need more than the standard 7/8 bit to code their character set. Each character is represented by 2 bytes.


UMTS
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System – The standard for 3G used by GSM service providers. UMTS includes voice and audio services, for fast data, graphic and text transmissions and video.


VCC
Voice Call Continuity – The 3GPP has defined the Voice Call Continuity (VCC) specifications in order to describe how a voice call can be persisted, as a mobile phone moves between circuit switched and packet switched radio domains


VAS
Value-added Services – Refers to advanced and/or additional services a network operator offers to possibly increase revenue, encourage loyalty, or make their offering more competitive. VAS type services might include e-mail, Internet access, text messaging, VoWifi, Click to call and other solutions.


ViLTE
Video over LTE – Is a conversational (i.e. person to person) video service based on the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) core network. ViLTE uses the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP).


Video Share
Video Share is an IP Multimedia System (IMS) enabled service for mobile networks that allows users engaged in a circuit switch voice call to add a unidirectional video streaming session over the packet network during the voice call. The video source can either be the camera on the phone or a pre-recorded video clip. Video Share is sometimes confused with traditional two-way Video Call service. Video Call involves simultaneous two-way Video and Audio transmission between the 2 parties (from start to finish), whereas Video Share involves adding and removing one or more one-way Video sessions to an existing voice call between the 2 parties.


VLR
Visitor Location Register – Is a component of the switching subsystem, within a GSM network. The switching subsystem includes various databases which store individual subscriber data. One of these databases is the Home Location Register; and the VLR is another


VOIP
Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) is the transmission of voice using the Internet Protocol (IP). Traditionally, voice services make use of circuit switching to transmit voice signals. In VoIP, the voice signal is encoded and divided into packets of data. Each packet is sent separately through the network.


VoLTE
Voice over Long Term Evolution – Most next-generation 4G wireless networks use Long Term Evolution technology. VoLTE allows voice to become another app that rides on a data network utilizing the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP). VoLTE offers the possibility for faster, better voice calls and even video chat tied to your cell phone service and number. This technology is necessary mainly because LTE is a data-only networking technology.


VoWiFi
Voice over Wi-Fi – Voice over Wi-Fi provides enhancements to the 802.11 standards for handling the real-time environment of voice calls. VoWiFi allows users to make calls within a Wi-Fi hotspot. With dual mode phones that switch between the cellular carrier and a Wi-Fi hotspot is seamless, allowing carriers to extend coverage by taking advantage of WiFi in hotpots, businesses and in subscriber homes.


WAP
Wireless Application Protocol – Is a specification for a set of communication protocols to standardize the way that wireless devices, such as cellular telephones, can be used for Internet access, including e-mail, the World Wide Web, newsgroups, and instant messaging. WAP was conceived by four companies: Ericsson, Motorola, Nokia, and Unwired Planet (now Phone.com).


WebRTC
Web Real-Time Communication – Is an API definition drafted by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) that supports browser-to-browser applications for voice calling, video chat, and P2P file sharing without the need of either internal or external plugins.


Wi-Fi
Wi-Fi is a wireless networking technology that allows computers and other devices to communicate over a wireless signal. It describes network components that are based on one of the 802.11 standards developed by the IEEE and adopted by the Wi-Fi Alliance. The name “Wi-Fi” is similar to “Hi-Fi,” which is short for “High Fidelity.” However, “Wi-Fi” is not short for “Wireless Fidelity,” but is simply a name chosen by the Wi-Fi Alliance.


X.25
X.25 is a packet-switching protocol standard that is developed in the 1970’s by ITU-T (formerly CCITT). It is used to carry large amounts of data over public data networks.


XML
eXtensible Markup Language – Is version of the Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) that allows
Web developers to create customized tags for additional functionality